Introduction to Ohm’s Law Graph:
The German physicist Georg Simon Ohm gave the law named as Ohm’s law. He found that the current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference. It gives the direct relationship between electric current and the potential difference.
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Statement of Ohm’s for Ohm’s Law Graph
t states that the direct current is flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the potential difference applied to the circuit. It is valid for metallic conductors and the electrical circuits containing an electrolytic resistance.
Mathematically Form , we can say that:
V µ I
The constant of the proportionality is called the resistance of the conductor.
Graphical Explanation of Ohm’s Law:
To plot the Ohm’s law graph we perform an experiment. To perform the experiments we need the following circuit components. a resistance wire, connecting wires, cell, key, voltmeter, rheostat, ammeter, etc. Now make the the complete circuit as shown in the diagram.
First, put on the key and fix the rheostat at any position. Now note the reading of ammeter and voltmeter. Again, fix the position of rheostat at any other position and note down the reading of voltmeter and ammeter. Repeat this proceed at least four times. Note down all the readings in the following table:
|S. No.||Potential Difference(P.D)||Electric Current(I)||Resistance =|
|1.||1 V||0.2 A||= 5 Ω|
|2.||2V||0.4 A||= 5 Ω|
|3.||3 V||0.6 A||= 5 Ω|
|4.||4V||0.8 A||= 5 Ω|
|5.||6 V||1.2 A||= 5 Ω|
So on X-axis we take the values of potential difference and on Y-axis we take the value sof electric current, we get the straight line as shown in the diagram.
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Ohm’s law graph showing the variation of electric current according to the potential difference
Here we observe that the value of resistance remains constant if the temperature of the conductor remains constant. Therefore, the resistance of the given wire is 5 ohms. In the above graph, we observe that the graph is straight line for conductors. In the case of insulators or semiconductors, the Ohm’s law graph is never a straight line it is also curved.
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